Q1: What are the various dimensions of Quality for products and service?
Quality is multidimensional. Product and service quality are comprised of a number of dimensions, which determine how customer requirements are achieved. Therefore it is essential that you consider the entire dimension that may be important to your customers.
Product quality has two dimensions
• Physical dimension - A product's physical dimension measures the tangible product itself and includes such things as length, weight, and temperature.
• Performance dimension - A product's performance dimension measures how well a product works and includes such things as speed and capacity.
While performance dimensions are more difficult to measure and obtain when compared to physical dimensions, but the efforts will provide more insight into how the product satisfies the customer.
Like product quality, service quality has several dimensions
• Responsiveness - Responsiveness refers to the reaction time of the service.
• Assurance - Assurance refers to the level of certainty a customer has regarding the quality of the service provided.
• Tangibles - Tangibles refers to a service's look or feel.
• Empathy - Empathy is when a service employee shows that she understands and sympathizes with the customer's situation. The greater the level of this understanding, the better. Some situations require more empathy than others.
• Reliability - Reliability refers to the dependability of the service providers and their ability to keep their promises.
The quality of products and services can be measured by their dimensions. Evaluating all dimensions of a product or service helps to determine how well the service stacks up against meeting the customer requirements.
Garvin proposes eight critical dimensions or categories of quality that can serve as a framework for strategic analysis: Performance, features, reliability, conformance, durability, serviceability, aesthetics, and perceived quality.
Performance refers to a product's primary operating characteristics. For an automobile, performance would include traits like acceleration, handling, cruising speed, and comfort. Because this dimension of quality involves measurable attributes, brands can usually be ranked objectively on individual aspects of performance. Overall performance rankings, however, are more difficult to develop, especially when they involve benefits that not every customer needs.
Features are usually the secondary aspects of performance, the "bells and whistles" of products and services, and those characteristics that supplement their basic functioning. The line separating primary performance characteristics from secondary features is often difficult to draw. What is crucial is that features involve objective and measurable attributes; objective individual needs, not prejudices, affect their translation into quality differences.
This dimension reflects the probability of a product malfunctioning or failing within a specified time period. Among the most common measures of reliability are the mean time to first failure, the mean time between failures, and the failure rate per unit time. Because these measures require a product to be in use for a specified period, they are more relevant to durable goods than to products or services that are consumed instantly.
Conformance is the degree to which a product's design and operating characteristics meet established standards. The two most common measures of failure in conformance are defect rates in the factory and, once a product is in the hands of the customer, the incidence of service calls. These measures neglect other deviations from standard, like misspelled labels or shoddy construction, that do not lead to service or repair.
A measure of product life, durability has both economic and technical dimensions. Technically, durability can be defined as the amount of use one gets from a product before it deteriorates. Alternatively, it may be defined as the amount of use one gets from a product before it breaks down and replacement is preferable to continued repair.
Serviceability is the speed, courtesy, competence, and ease of repair. Consumers are concerned not only about a product breaking down but also about the time before service is restored, the timeliness with which service appointments are kept, the nature of dealings with service personnel, and the frequency with which service calls or repairs fail to correct outstanding problems. In those cases where problems are not immediately resolved and complaints are filed, a company's complaints handling procedures are also likely to affect customers' ultimate evaluation of product and service quality.
Aesthetics is a subjective dimension of quality. How a product looks, feels, sounds, tastes, or smells is a matter of personal judgment and a reflection of individual preference. On this dimension of quality it may be difficult to please everyone.
8. Perceived Quality
Consumers do not always have complete information about a product's or service's attributes; indirect measures may be their only basis for comparing brands. A product's durability for example can seldom be observed directly; it must usually be inferred from various tangible and intangible aspects of the product. In such circumstances, images, advertising, and brand names - inferences about quality rather than the reality itself - can be critical.
Q2: Give 3 definitions of Quality Management
Definition of Quality Management
Quality management includes all the activities that managers carry out in an effort to implement their quality policy. These activities include quality planning, quality control, quality assurance, and quality improvement.
A systematic set of activities to ensure that processes create products with maximum Quality at minimum Cost of Quality. The activities include Quality Assurance, Quality Control, and Quality Improvement.
"A quality management is a comprehensive and fundamental rule / belief, for leading and operating an organisation, aimed at continually improving performance over the long term by focusing on customers while addressing the needs of all other stake holders".
Q3: Write notes on the following.
a) Principle of 5 S
Efficient work and quality require clean environment, safety and discipline. 5S are simple, effective rules for tidiness.
The 5S philosophy subscribes to an integrated approach to ensure that work areas are organized, organizational rule and standards are observed, and discipline is maintained so as to cultivate an environment of efficiency, effectiveness and economy. It utilizes workplace organization techniques and the simplification of work. These techniques make work easier, faster, safer, cheaper and more productive.
5S was stated by the Japanese who practice good housekeeping in the office.
The 5S practices are thoroughly embedded in the Japanese culture which believes that a clean workplace is “part way” to having a clean and organized mind. Another principle that applies to 5S is: there is a place for everything and everything in its place.
The 5S are prerequisites for any improvement program. As waste is potential gain, so eliminating waste is a gain. 5S Philosophy focuses on effective work place organization, simplifies work environment, reduces waste while improving quality and safety. There is no hope for efficiency or quality improvement with dirty work place, waste of time and scrap.
Calling these principles the "5S" is a good way to remember their meaning and content.
What are 5S?
Sorting, keep the necessary in work area, dispose or keep in a distant storage area less frequently used items, unneeded items are discarded.
Seiri fights the habit to keep things because they may be useful someday. Seiri helps to keep work area tidy, improves searching and fetching efficiency, and generally clears much space. Seiri is also excellent way to gain valuable floor space and eliminate old broken tools, obsolete jigs and fixtures, scrap and excess raw material.
Systematic arrangement for the most efficient and effective retrieval. A good example of Seiton is the tool panel. Effective Seiton can be achieved by painting floors to visualize the dirt, outlining work areas and locations, shadow tool boards. For improving changeover time with SMED or reduce machine downtime through Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) it is necessary to have tools at hand. So a specific mobile tool cart was designed. An other example of Seiton are "broom carts". As cleaning is a major part of 5S we custom made carts to hold brooms, mops and buckets. Several carts have specific locations and all employees can find them.
Seiton saying would be: "A place for everything and everything on its place."
Cleaning. After the first thorough cleaning when implementing 5S, daily follow-up cleaning is necessary in order to sustain this improvement. Cleanliness is also helpful to notice damages on equipment such as leaks, breakage and misalignment. These minor damages, if left unattended, could lead to equipment failure and loss of production. Regular cleaning is a type of inspection. Seiso is an important part of basic TPM; Total Productive Maintenance and Safety matter through cleanliness is obvious.
Standardizing. Once the first three S have been implemented, it should be set as a standard so to keep these good practice work area. Without it, the situation will deteriorate right back to old habits. Have an easy-to-follow standards and develop a structure to support it. Allow employees to join the development of such standards.
The 3 first S are often executed by order.
Seiketsu helps to turn it into natural, standard behavior.
Finally, to keep first 4 S alive, it is necessary to keep educating people maintaining standards. By setting up a formal system; with display of results, follow-up, the now complete 5S get insured to live, and be expanded beyond their initial limits, in an ongoing improvement way; the Kaizen way.
The effect of continuous improvement leads to less waste, better quality and faster lead times.
b) Quality Circle
Quality Circle is a small group of 6 to 12 employees doing similar work who voluntarily meet together on a regular basis to identify improvements in their respective work areas using proven techniques for analysing and solving work related problems coming in the way of achieving and sustaining excellence leading to mutual upliftment of employees as well as the organisation. It is "a way of capturing the creative and innovative power that lies within the work force".
The objectives of Quality Circles are multi-faced.
a) Change in Attitude. From "I don’t care" to "I do care" Continuous improvement in quality of work life through humanisation of work.
b) Self Development Bring out ‘Hidden Potential’ of people People get to learn additional skills.
c) Development of Team Spirit Individual Vs Team – "I could not do but we did it" Eliminate inter departmental conflicts.
d) Improved Organisational Culture Positive working environment. Total involvement of people at all levels. Higher motivational level. Participate Management process.
Quality circles have the advantage of continuity; the circle remains intact from project to project. (For a comparison to Quality Improvement Teams see Juran's Quality by Design
Japanese term that means continuous improvement, taken from words 'Kai' means continuous and 'zen' means improvement.
Some translate 'Kai' to mean change and 'zen' to mean good, or for the better.
The same japanese words Kaizen that pronounce as 'Gai San' in chinese mean:
Gai= The action to correct. San= This word is more related to the Taoism or Buddhism Philosophy in which give the definition as the action that 'benefit' the society but not to one particular individual. The quality of benefit that involve here should be sustain forever, in other words the 'san' is and act that truely benefit the others.
Kaizen and Management
Management has two major components:
1. maintenance, and
The objective of the maintenance function is to maintain current technological, managerial, and operating standards. The improvement function is aimed at improving current standards.
Under the maintenance function, the management must first establish policies, rules, directives and standard operating procedures (SOPs) and then work towards ensuring that everybody follows SOP. The latter is achieved through a combination of discipline and human resource development measures.
Under the improvement function, management works continuously towards revising the current standards, once they have been mastered, and establishing higher ones. Improvement can be broken down between innovation and Kaizen. Innovation involves a drastic improvement in the existing process and requires large investments. Kaizen signifies small improvements as a result of coordinated continuous efforts by all employees
d) 8D is a problem-solving methodology
8D is a problem-solving methodology for product and process improvement. It is structured into eight disciplines, emphasizing team synergy. The team as whole is better and smarter than the quality sum of the individuals. Each discipline is supported by a checklist of assessment questions, such as “what is wrong with what”, “what, when, where, how much”.
The 8 disciplines are,
1. Use Team Approach
Establish a small group of people with the knowledge, time, authority and skill to solve the problem and implement corrective actions. The group must select a team leader.
2. Describe the Problem
Describe the problem in measurable terms. Specify the internal or external customer problem by describing it in specific terms.
3. Implement and Verify Short-Term Corrective Actions
Define and implement those intermediate actions that will protect the customer from the problem until permanent corrective action is implemented. Verify with data the effectiveness of these actions.
4. Define and Verify Root Causes
Identify all potential causes which could explain why the problem occurred. Test each potential cause against the problem description and data. Identify alternative corrective actions to eliminate root cause.
5. Verify Corrective Actions
Confirm that the selected corrective actions will resolve the problem for the customer and will not cause undesirable side effects. Define other actions, if necessary, based on potential severity of problem.
6. Implement Permanent Corrective Actions
Define and implement the permanent corrective actions needed. Choose on-going controls to insure the root cause is eliminated. Once in production, monitor the long-term effects and implement additional controls as necessary.
7. Prevent Recurrence
Modify specifications, update training, review work flow, improve practices and procedures to prevent recurrence of this and all similar problems.
8. Congratulate Your Team
Recognize the collective efforts of your team. Publicize your achievement. Share your knowledge and learning.
e) Fishbone Diagram
A Problem-Analysis Tool
What is a Fishbone diagram?
Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa, a Japanese quality control statistician, invented the fishbone diagram. Therefore, it may be referred to as the Ishikawa diagram. The fishbone diagram is an analysis tool that provides a systematic way of looking at effects and the causes that create or contribute to those effects. Because of the function of the fishbone diagram, it may be referred to as a cause-and-effect diagram. The design of the diagram looks much like the skeleton of a fish. Therefore, it is often referred to as the fishbone diagram.
Whatever name you choose, remember that the value of the fishbone diagram is to assist teams in categorizing the many potential causes of problems or issues in an orderly way and in identifying root causes.
When should a fishbone diagram be used?
Does the team...
• Need to study a problem/issue to determine the root cause?
• Want to study all the possible reasons why a process is beginning to have difficulties, problems, or breakdowns?
• Need to identify areas for data collection?
• Want to study why a process is not performing properly or producing the desired results?
How is a fishbone diagram constructed?
1. Draw the fishbone diagram....
2. List the problem/issue to be studied in the "head of the fish".
3. Label each ""bone" of the "fish". The major categories typically utilized are:
The 4 M’s: Methods, Machines, Materials, Manpower
The 4 P’s: Place, Procedure, People, Policies
The 4 S’s: Surroundings, Suppliers, Systems, Skills
Note: You may use one of the four categories suggested, combine them in any fashion or make up your own. The categories are to help you organize your ideas.
4. Use an idea-generating technique (e.g., brainstorming) to identify the factors within each category that may be affecting the problem/issue and/or effect being studied. The team should ask... "What are the machine issues affecting / causing..."
5. Repeat this procedure with each factor under the category to produce sub-factors. Continue asking, "Why is this happening?" and put additional segments each factor and subsequently under each sub-factor.
6. Continue until you no longer get useful information as you ask, "Why is that happening?"
7. Analyze the results of the fishbone after team members agree that an adequate amount of detail has been provided under each major category. Do this by looking for those items that appear in more than one category. These become the 'most likely causes".
8. For those items identified as the "most likely causes", the team should reach consensus on listing those items in priority order with the first item being the most probable" cause.
The C&E diagram is also known as the fishbone diagram because it was drawn to resemble the skeleton of a fish, with the main causal categories drawn as "bones" attached to the spine of the fish, as shown below.